Gilan province is located in the north of Iran, stretching between the Alborz and Talesh Mountain Ranges. Guilan province leads to the provinces of Ardebil, Zanjan, Qazvin and Mazandaran with an area of 14044 square kilometers from the north to the Caspian Sea and from the west, south and east, respectively. all the townships of the province are: Astara, Astaneh Ashrafieh, Bandar Anzali, Rasht, Roodbar, Roodsar, Somiehsara, Fooman, Lahijan, Langerood, Talesh and Shaft. Rasht is the provincial capital. And it is populated approximately 2.2 million, of which 46.8% were registered as urban dwellers and 53.2% as rural dwellers.
Gilan enjoys a climate known as ‘moderate Caspian’. The same has emerged from the influence of currents of both the Alborz Mountains and the Caspian Sea. The Talesh Mountains being in a north to south direction, and the Alborz mountains in an east to west direction. These serve as a barrier against the humid north-west Caspian winds and withholds the penetration of wind bearing vapors towards Iran’s mainland, causing heavy rainfall in the northern provinces of Iran. However, freezing temperatures are seldom reported in the coastal areas. The amount of rainfall in Gilan, depends on the winds bearing vapor that blow from the north west in winter, from the east in spring and from the west in summer and autumn.
The history of Gilan is not very clear till the 6th century BC. or till the time that the Greek historians clarified some sections of Iranian history. But archaeological excavations show that the antiquity of the territory in the southern parts of the Caspian Sea dates back to the time prior to the last Ice Age, estimated around 50-150 millennium BC. Some historians believe that human civilization has emerged from the southern coasts of the Caspian Sea, extending westwards specially towards Mesopotamia.In the 6th century BC, the inhabitants of Gilan allied with Koorush (Cyrus) the Achaemenian and overthrew the Medes.
On the defeat of the Achaemenian Dynasty by Alexander the Macedonian, Iran came under their controlGilan Tourist Attractions – Rice Farm Thereafter, the Seleucidians took over the power. At that time, the local governors ruled independently. In the Sassanide era, Gilan lost its independence to some extent and Ardeshir Babakan overcame the local governors. During the Abbasid Caliphate, the Alavian (Shi’ites) who lived in the mountainous areas of Daylam, tried to severe the control of the Abbasid Caliphs from Iran. Consequently, the two united. Around the year 290 AH., the people of Gilan accepted the Shi’ite religion and tried to expand it. In this period some dynasties having Gilani and Daylami origins appeared on the historical scene in Iran.One of the most dynasties as such was the ‘Al Bouyeh’, who even attacked Baqdad, the capital of the Abbasid Calipahte, and defeated the Abbasid Caliph. In the 7th century AH., the Mongols tried to conquer Gilan. But due to geographical conditions and lack of accessibility, they failed to get there till the early 8th century AH. Finally, Soltan Mohammad Khodabaneh or ‘Oljaito’ temporarily conquered this territory.
White fish, tea, muffins, peanuts, olive and rice are among the most important souvenirs in Guilan province. Among the museums of this province are the Rasht Museum, the Guilan Rural Heritage Museum, the History Museum of Iran, the Museum of Bandar Anzali, the Museum of Zoology and Aquatic Museum are the historical and cultural places for whom it may concern and history lovers.
For finding history and culture in Gilan , Masoole city and Talesh are recommended.
Masoole: When you travel to Gilan by car you will be able to explore the less seen parts of Gilan .Masooleh is a village in the north of Iran in Gilan Province. The city Masoole also known as village in Historical contacts surrounded by beautiful forests and mountains , very often covered with fog. Settlements in this area date back to over one thousand years ago. The architecture of this village is unique. One of the most fascinating features of Masooleh is the structure of its interconnected buildings. The village was constructed with a sewage system and windows with double glazing from the beginning. The houses are earthquake-proof and are all connected through underground tunnels. Courtyards and roofs both serve as pedestrian areas similar to streets. Commute in the village is simple as Masouleh does not allow any motor vehicles to enter the village. Its beautiful handicrafts and sweets which you can see all over the city as dated back to more than 1000 AD.
Lahijan the beautifull mountainous city laying peacefully on the Alborz foothills in north of Iran is one of the oldest cities in Gilan, so that during the time of the Parthians there was a fortress located 6 km from the city called Kohandeh. The fortress remained in the seventh century until the Mongol invasion, which later destroyed it. Before Islam, the city consisted of three parts of Kohdj, the city and the market.
Lahijan as the most beautiful cultural and historical city in Gilan still has some historical places such as Zahid GIlanies shrine ,and tea museum is highly recommended for tourists.